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Text Transformations


Nicole Strangman & Tracey Hall


National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum (NCAC)




Text transformations are  a broad classification which includes text modifications and innovative technology tools that alter or add to the features of printed text. Modified text is any text that has been changed from its original print format. Examples of modified text include text-to-speech, video and videodiscs, multimedia, hypertext, and hypermedia. Technology tools are any technological devices or programs that affect the use of text or content that would otherwise be presented with text. Examples of technology tools include word processing, spell checker, word prediction, speech recognition, and software and computer programs. Next, applications across curriculum areas and evidence for effectiveness in both categories are discussed, including influencing factors. Lastly, links to learn more about text transformations are provided.

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Strangman, N., & Hall, T. (2003). Text transformations. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. (Links updated 2009). Retrieved [insert date] from

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